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There are three types of Hajj:

1- Hajj At-Tamattu’
2- Hajj al Qiran
3- Hajj al Ifrad.

Here, we shall talk about Hajj at-Tamattu’ as it is the most recommended one.  In this type of Hajj, one is to perform ‘Umrah during the Hajj months   (i.e.Shawwal, Dhul-Qa’dah and the first nine nights of Dhul-Hijjah) and to perform the Hajj in the same year with a sacrifice slaughtered in Mina on the day of Eid Al-Adha (The 10th day of Dhul-Hijjah) or during the days of at-Tashreeq (i.e. the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah). The pilgrimage may remove his Ihram garments and continue his normal activities between “Umrah and Hajj. It is necessary to make the Tawaf and the Sa’i twice, the first time for ‘Umrah and the second time for Hajj.  

The different steps of the Hajj Journey are described below:  
Ihram: is the intention of the person willing to perform all rites of ‘Umra, Hajj or both when he arrives at the Miqat. Each direction coming into Makkah has its own Miqat. It is recommended that the one who intends to perform Hajj makes Ghusl (a shower with the intention to purify one’s self and to be ready for Hajj), perfumes his body, but not his garments, and puts on a two- piece garment with no headgear. The garments should be of seamless cloth. One piece to cover the upper part of the body, and the second to cover the lower part. For a woman the Ihram is the same except that she can wear any kind of wide garments, and should not use perfumes at all and her dress should cover the whole body decently, leaving the hands and the face uncovered. (The sister who is accustomed to wear the veil over her face, is allowed to cover her face with a thin cloth without tying it, in other words something light and different from her regular veil.) The pilgrim should say the intention according to the type of Hajj. For Hajj At-Tamattu’ one should say:  

LABBAYAKA ALLAHUMMA ‘UMRAH” which means “O Allah I answered your call to perform “Umrah”. It is recommended to repeat the well-known supplication of Hajj, called Talbeyah, as frequently as possible from the time of Ihram till the time of the first stoning of Jamrat Al-Aqabat in Mina on the tenth day of Dhul Hijjah.  


Men are recommended to utter the talbeyah aloud while women are to say it quietly. This Talbeya is the following:  

“ LABBAYKA ALLAHUMMA LABBAYK. LABBAYKA LA SHAREEKA LAKA LABBAYK. INNALHAMDA WAN-N’IMATA LAKA WALMULK. LA SHAREEK LAK”.  

“Here I am at your service. O my Lord, Here I am. No partner you have. Here I am. Truly, the praise and the provisions are yours, and so is the dominion. No partner do you have”

Tawaf:  When a Muslim arrives in Makkah, he should make Tawaf around the Ka’bah, as a gesture of greeting Al-Masjid Al Haraam. This is done by circling the Ka’bah seven times in the counterclockwise direction, starting from the black stone with Takbeer and ending each circle at the black stone with Takbeer, keeping the Ka’bah to one’s left.

Then the pilgrim goes to Maqam Ibrahim (Ibrahim’s station), and performs two rak’ah behind it, (close to it if possible), but away from the path of the people making Tawaf.  In all cases one should be facing the Ka’bah when praying behind Maqam Ibrahim.              

Sa’i: The next rite is to make sa’i between Safa and Marwah.  The pilgrim starts Sa’i by ascending the Safa.  While facing the direction of the Ka’ba he praises Allah, raises his hands and says Takbeer “Allah-u-Akbar” three times, then makes supplication to Allah.  Then the pilgrim descends from the Safa and heads towards the Marwah. 

One should increase the pace between theclearly marked green posts, but should walk at a normal pace before and after them. When the pilgrim reaches the Marwah, he should ascend it, praise Allah and do as he did at the Safa. This is considered one round and so is the other way from the Marwah to the Safa.  A total of seven rounds are required to perform the sa’i.

Shaving the Head or Trimming the Hair: After Sa’i, the Muslim ends his Umra rites by shaving his head or trimming his hair (women should cut a finger tip’s length from their hair).   At this stage, the prohibitions pertaining to the state of Ihram are lifted and one can resume his normal life.

There are no required supplications for Tawaf or for Sa’i.  It is up to the worshipper to praise Allah or to supplicate Him with any acceptable supplication or to recite verses of the Qur’an.  There are no many specific supplications that the Prophet (SWS) used to recite during the rites.

A Pilgrim performing Hajj Al Tamatt’u should intend Ihram, from the place where he is staying, on the eighth of Dhul-Hijjah,  

which is the Tarwiah Day, and it is better to leave for Mina in the morning.  In Mina , the pilgrims pray Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha of the 8th day of Dhul-Hijjah and Fajr of the 9th day of Dhul-Hijja (Arafah Day).  Dhuhr, Asr and Isha are each shortened to two Rak’ah only, but are not combined.  

The pilgrims remain in Mina until sunrise of the 9th day of Dhul-Hijjah and then leave for Arafat.

Departure to Arafat:

            On the 9th day of Dhul-Hijjah, the Day of Arafah, the pilgrims stay in Arafat until sunset. It is preferable to pray Dhuhr and Asr at Arafat, shortened and combined during the time of Dhuhr to save the rest of the day for glorifying Allah and for supplication asking forgiveness.  A pilgrim should make sure that he is within the boundaries of Arafat, not necessarily standing on the mountain of Arafa, he should also be sure that he has spent any part of the night –even a few minutes-within Arafat.  The Prophet (SAS) said:  “I stood here on this rocky hill and all Arafat is a standing place” (Muslim).  One should keep reciting Talbeyah, glorifying Allah the Greatest and repeating supplication. 

            It is also reported that the Prophet (SAS) used to say the following supplication:  “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, the one without a partner.  The dominion and the praise are His and He is powerful over everything”.  Anas Ibn Malik was asked once how he and his friends used to spend their time while walking from Mina to Arafat in the company of the Prophet, (SAS).  Anas said: “Some of us used to cry out Talbeyah, others used to golrify Allah the Greatest and the rest used to repeat supplications.  Each one of us was free to worship Allah in the way he likes without prejudice or renunciation of his right”.  (Bukhari).  

            In the vast plain of Arafat, tears are shed, sins are washed and faults are redressed for those who ask Allah for forgiveness and offer sincere repentance for their wrong doings in the past.  Happy is the person who receives the Mercy and Pleasure of Allah on that particular day.    

Soon after sunset on the day of Arafah, the pilgrims leave for Muzdalifah quietly and reverently in compliance with the advice of the Prophet (SAS) who said when he noticed people walking without calmness:  “O people! Be  quiet, hastening is not a sign of righteousness”.  (Bukhari).

To follow the example of the Prophet (SAS) keep reciting the Talbeyah, glorifying Allah the Greatest and mentioning the name of Allah until the time of stoning Jamrat Al-Aqabah, Al-Jamrat-al-Kubra (a stone pillar in Mina).  In Muzdalifah, the pilgrim performs Maghrib and Isha prayers combined, shortening the Isha prayer to two Rak’ah.  Pilgrims stay overnight in Muzdalifah to perform the Fajr prayer and wait until the brightness of the morning is widespread before they leave for Mina passing through the sacred Mash’ar Al Haram valley.   Women and weak individuals are allowed to proceed to Mina at any time after Midnight to avoid the crowd.  

Back to Mina:

Stoning Jamrat Al-Aqabah:

When the pilgrims arrive in Mina, they go to Jamrat Al-Aqabah where they stone it with seven pebbles glorifying Allah “Allah-u-Akbar” at each throw and calling on him to accept their Hajj.  The time of stoning Jamrat Al-Aqabah is after sunrise.  The Prophet (SAS) threw the pebbles late in the morning and permitted the weak people to stone after leaving Muzdalifah after Midnight.  The size of the pebbles should not be more than that of a pea as described by the Prophet (SAS) who warned against exaggeration.  The pebbles can be picked up either in Muzdalifah or in Mina.  

Slaughter of Sacrifice:

After stoning Jamrat Al-Aqabah, the pilgrim goes to slaughter his sacrifice either personally or through the appointment of somebody else to do it on his behalf.  A pilgrim should slaughter either a sheep, or share a cow or a camel with six others.  

Shaving the Head or Trimming the Hair:  

The final rite on the tenth day after offering one’s sacrifice is to shave his head or to cut some of the hair.  Shaving the head is, however preferable for it was reported that the Prophet prayed three times for those who shaved their heads, when he said in the meaning of -:  “May Allah’s Mercy be upon those who shaved their heads”.  (Bukhari, Muslim)  For women, the length of hair to be cut is that of a fingertip.  The stoning of Jamrat Al-Aqabah and the shaving of head or the trimming of hair symbolizes the end of the first phase of the state of Ihram and the lifting of its restrictions except for sexual intercourse with one’s spouse.  Stoning Jamrat Al-Aqabah, slaughtering the sacrifice and shaving the head or cutting part of the hair are preferred to be in this order, as it is the order that the Prophet (SAS) did them.  However, if they are done in any order, there is no harm in that.  

Tawaf Al_Ifada:

Tawaf Al-Ifadha is a fundamental rite of Hajj.  The pilgrim makes Tawaf Al-Ifadhah by visiting Al-Masjid Al-Haraam and circling the Ka’bah seven times and praying two Rak’ah behind Maqam brahim if possible and without causing any harm to Muslims.  Then the pilgrim should make Sa’i between the Safa and the Marwa.   After Tawaf Al-Ifadhah the state of Ihram is completely ended and all restrictions are lifted including sexual intercourse with one’s spouse.  Tawaf Al-Ifadah can be delayed until the days spent in Mina are over.

The pilgrim should return to Mina and spend there the days of Tashreeq (i.e. the 11th 12th and 13th days of Dhul-Hijjah).

During each day, and after Dhuhr prayer until the midnight, the pilgrim stones the three stone  pillars called “Jamrat”: The smaller, the medium and Jamrat Al-Aqabah, glorifying Allah “Allah-u-Akbar “with each throw of the seven pebbles stoned at each pillar. 

These pebbles are picked up in Mina.  A pilgrim may leave Mina to Makkah on the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah or on the 12th if he wishes, there is no blame on him if he chooses the latter, but he has to leave before sunset if not he must stay in Mina till he throws the pebbles the next day (13th).

Farewell Tawaf:

Farewell Tawaf is the final rite of Hajj.  It is to make another Tawaf around the Ka’bah.  Ibn Abbas said: “The people were ordered to perform the Tawaf around the Ka’bah as the last thing before leaving Makkah, except the menstruating women who were excused.”  (Bukhari)

 

Q-  Can a woman perform Hajj if her bleeding ceases before the forty-day post-natal period?  And if her bleeding does not stop, what should she do if she has already made the intention for Hajj?  

A- If her post-natal bleeding stops before forty days, she should make a ghusl, do her formal prayers and perform all the rites of Hajj, including the tawaaf, because there is no minimum limit for the period of post-natal bleeding.

However, if the bleeding continues and she has already made her intention for Hajj, she should make a ghusl, wear a sanitary napkin and put on her ihraam.  The proof for this is the case of Asmaa bint Umays, wife of Aboo Bakr, who delivered a baby when the Prophet (saws) stopped at Thul-Hulayfah during his farewell Hajj.  She asked the Prophet (saws) what she should do, and he replied, “Make a ghusl, wrap a cloth around your privates and make your Ihraam.”  She should then do all of the rites of Hajj except for the tawaaf, which should only be done after her bleeding has stopped.   The Prophet (saws) prohibited menstruating women from making tawaaf.  He told ‘Aa’ishah,  “Do everything that one performing Hajj does, except circling the Ka’bah, until your menses stops”.  Post-natal bleeding is similar to menses; consequently the same ruling applies.

Q- How can a menstruating woman pray the necessary two units of formal prayer at the time of putting on the ihraam (garments of Hajj)?  

 A- Wearing Ihraam has no special formal prayer accompanying it, because it was not recorded that the Prophet (saws) instructed his followers to do this prayer, nor did he do it himself, nor did he approve of others doing it.  

Q- A woman said, “ I went for ‘Umrah and crossed the meeqaat while I was menstruating so I did not make ihraam.  I remained in Makkah until my menses ceased and then put on my Ihraam in Makkah and made  ‘Umrah”.  She then asked,  “ Is what I did permissible?  If not, what should I have done’?  

A- Your actions were incorrect.  A woman wishing to perform “Umrah should not cross the meeqaat without wearing her ihraam, even if she is menstruating.  The proof for this is the case of Asmaa bint ‘Umays, wife of Aboo Bakr, who delivered a baby during the Prophet’s stay at Thul-Hulayfah during his farewell Hajj.  He instructed her to make ihraam. Since the blood from post-natal bleeding is similar to menstrual blood, the same ruling applies.  However, the menstruating woman who wears ihraam, should not enter the mosque nor make tawaaf until her bleeding stops.  In this regard, the Prophet (saws) told his wife ‘Aa’ishah, “Do everything that one performing Hajj does, except circling the Ka’bah, until your menses stops”.  If her menses begin after she has made tawaaf, she should go ahead and make the sa’yi, even though she is menstruating.   Then she should cut some of her hair signifying the end of her ‘Umrah.  It is permissible for a menstruating woman to do sa’yi because tahaarah is not a condition for those making sa’yi.  

Q- Is the place of sa’yi a part of the Haram? Can a menstruating woman go there?  Should one who enters the Haram from this location perform the formal prayer for entering the mosque?  

A- It appears that this area was not originally part of the mosque.  Because of that, a small wall was placed between it and the present –day mosque.  There is no doubt that it being separate is better for people, because if the sa’yi area was originally included in the mosque, it would prevent the menstruating woman from making sa’yi.  My ruling is that if a woman begins menstruating after completing the tawaaf, she can go ahead and make sa’yi because the area of sa’yi is not actually considered part of the mosque.  

As to making formal prayer for entering the mosque from there, it could be said that one who makes sa’yi and re-enters the mosque should make the prayer.  If he did not make it, there is no sin on him, but it would be better for him to take advantage of the opportunity and make the two units of prayer considering the great honor given to worship in the mosque.  

Q- After a menstruating woman arrived at the meeqaat, she made a ghusl and donned her ihraam.  When she came to Makkah, she remained outside of the mosque and did not do any of the rites of Hajj or Umrah.  She then spent two days in Mina and when her menses stopped, she made another ghusl and performed all of the rites of ‘Umrah. However, while she was making Tawaaf al-Ifaadah for Hajj, her menses came back, but she was too shy to say anything to her guardian and went on to complete the rites of Hajj.  What is the rule governing such a case?

A- If the blood, which came during Tawaaf al-Ifaadah, was in fact menstrual blood, her tawaaf was invalid, in which case she would be required to return to Makkah to do it.  She should put on her ihraam at the meeqaat with the intention for making ‘Umrah, do the rites of  ‘Umrah, cut her hair then make the Tawaaf al-Ifaadah.  If she is unable to return to Makkah, due to circumstances beyond her control, her Hajj is valid because she could not do more than what she did.  

If, on the other hand, the blood was not menstrual, but due to the stress of the crowds, etc., her tawaaf was correct and her Hajj valid.  

Q- What is the ruling concerning a woman who wore ihraam with the intention of performing ‘Umrah, but her period started after she reached Makkah and her mahram is obliged to leave Makkah immediately if she does not have any relatives in Makkah?  

A- If she is living in Saudi Arabia, she should return home with her mahram, but remain in a state of ihraam.  After her menses have stopped, she should return to Makkah because returning is not difficult for her.   However, if she came from abroad and returning would be very difficult for her, she should wear a sanitary napkin, make tawaaf, sa’yi and cut her hair to complete her ‘Umrah before leaving.  It is permissible for her to make tawaaf in a state of ritual impurity under such circumstances, because dire necessity makes allowable the forbidden.  

Q- A woman finished her rites of Hajj, except for Tawaaf al-Ifaadah and Tawaaf al-Widaa, when her menses started, she went back home to Madeenah with the intention of coming back some time later to make the two tawaafs.  However, in ignorance she came out of her state of ihraam and did all the things prohibited to those in a state of ihraam.  When she asked someone about returning to Makkah to complete the tawaafs, she was told that it would be incorrect for her to make the tawaafs, because her HHHaHH     Hajj was invalidated.  furthermore, she was told she would have    Hajj was invalidated.  Furthermore, she was told she would have to repeat her Hajj in the coming year and sacrifice a cow or a camel.  Is this ruling correct or does she have other options?  

A- This is among the calamities resulting from those who make legal rulings without sound knowledge.  The women should return to Makkah and make Tawaaf al-Ifaadah alone as Tawaaf al_Widaa’ was not obligatory on her since she was menstruating when she left Makkah.  According to Ibn ‘Abbaas’ hadeeth, the Prophet (saws) “Instructed the people to make their last contact with the mosque a tawaaf.”  Also because, when the Prophet (saws) was informed that his wife, Safeeyah, had made Tawaaf al-Ifaadah, he said, “Then let us go”.  This indicates that Tawaaf al-Widaa’ is not obligatory on the menstruating woman while Tawaaf al-Ifaadah is.  Thus, when the woman came out of ihraam in ignorance, it did not affect her, because there is no penalty on one who breaks the rules of Ihraam in ignorance.  Allah has stated:  

Our Lord, do not hold us to account for what we have forgotten or done mistakenly”. Soorah al-Baqarah (2: 286) 

“There is no sin on you for what you have done mistakenly, but there is for what your hearts have intended”.  Soorah al-Ahzaab (33: 5 ) 
Consequently, if a person does any of the acts, which break the rules of  ihraam due to ignorance, or forgetfulness, or under compulsion, there is no penalty against him/her.  However, once these excuses are removed, the person must immediately stop committing the error.  

Q- If a woman delivers a child on the day of Tarweeyah and begins post-natal bleeding after completing all of the major pillars of Hajj except the tawaaf and the sa’yi, but finds that the bleeding has begun to cease after ten days, should she make ghusl and complete the remaining pillar of Hajj?  

A- She should not make a ghusl and perform tawaaf until she is absolutely certain that her post-natal bleeding has completely stopped.   Once she is certain, she should then make ghusl and perform the tawaaf and sa’yi.  If she performs sa’yi before tawaaf there is no harm, because when the Prophet was asked about one who did that, he replied that there was no harm.  

Q- A menstruating woman put on the ihraam with the intention of performing Hajj from as-Sayl.  When she reached Makkah, she went to Jeddah out of necessity and her menses stopped there.  She then made a ghusl, combed her hair and completed her Hajj.  Is her Hajj considered valid, or does she have a penalty against her?  

A- Yes, her Hajj is correct and there is no penalty against her.  

Q- A concerned husband told the story of how he and his family came from Yanbu to do ‘Umrah and when they reached Jeddah, his wife began to menstruate.  Due to this fact, he did his ‘Umrah alone.  Given this situation, he wants to know what his wife was supposed to do?  

A- Regarding his wife, the ruling is that she should wait until her menses stops, then complete her ‘Umrah.  When Safeeyah’s menses began, the Prophet (saws) asked, “Will she delay us?”  They replied, “She has already made Tawaaf al-Ifaadah”.  He said, “Then, let us go”.  His question “Will she delay us?” is proof that the woman who menstruates before doing Tawaaf al-Ifaadah should wait until her menses ends before circling the “Ka’bah.  The tawaaf of  ‘Umrah is governed by the same ruling as the Tawaaf al-Ifaadah of Hajj, because it is a fundamental pillar of ‘Umrah.  

Q- A woman said, “I went to make Hajj and my menses began.  I was too shy to inform anyone, so I entered the mosque, made formal prayer, followed by tawaaf and sa’yi.”  She then asked,  “What is my penalty, considering that my menses came after post-natal bleeding had ended”?  

A- It is not permissible for a woman to make formal prayer in Makkah if she is menstruating or experiencing post-natal bleeding, even if she is in her own country.  Evidence for this view is based on the Prophet’s statement, Is it not that when she menstruates she does not make formal prayer or fast”Muslims unanimously hold the position that menstruating women are not supposed to fast or do formal prayer.  This woman should repent to Allah and seek His forgiveness for what she did.  

As for her tawaaf while menstruating, it was invalid.  Her sa’yi, on the other hand, was valid based on the most correct opinion which permits the performance of sa’yi before tawaaf in Hajj.  Therefore, she is required to redo her tawaff in a state of purity, because Tawaaf al-Ifaadah is a major pillar or Hajj, without which the second release from the state of ihraam is incomplete.  Consequently, this woman should not have sexual relations with her husband, if she is married, until she makes the tawaaf.  If she is unmarried, she cannot get married until she makes the tawaaf, and Allah knows best.

Q- What is the woman whose menses began on the day of Arafat supposed to do?  

A- She should continue her Hajj, doing everything everyone else does except tawaaf, which should only be done after her menses has ended.

Q- If a woman began her periods after completing the rite of stoning Jamrah al-Aqabah, but before making Tawaaf al-Ifaadah, what should she do if she has to return home with her husband and will be unable to come back?  

A- If she is really unable to return, she should wear a sanitary napkin, make the tawaaf and complete the remaining rites of Hajj.  

Q- Is it permissible for a woman who fears that her menses will come during Hajj to use pills which prevent or delay her menses only during the Hajj period?

A- It is permissible for a woman to use pills, which prevent menses during Hajj after she has confirmed the safety of their usage from a gynecologist.  She may also do so during Ramadaan in order to complete the fast along with the rest of the community.

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